The Late Eocene saw the rebirth of seasons, which caused the expansion of savanna-like areas, along with the evolution of grass. The Oligocene featured the expansion of grass which had led to many new species to evolve, including the first elephants, cats, dogs, marsupials and many other species still prevalent today.
The first primitive birds and flowering plants angiosperms appeared. Coniferous plants, or those that have cone-bearing seeds, already existed at the beginning of the era, but they became much more abundant during the Mesozoic.
At the end of the Cretaceous, another igneous province, the flood basalts of the Deccan Traps, formed on what is now the Indian subcontinent. Some flightless birds grew larger than humans. The Mesozoic is divided into just three time periods: The world map has not changed much since, save for changes brought about by the glaciations of the Quaternary, such as the Great LakesHudson Bayand the Baltic sea.
Mesozoic life The fauna and flora of the Mesozoic were distinctly different from those of the Paleozoic, the largest mass extinction in Earth history having occurred at The mesozoic era boundary of the two eras, when some 90 percent of all marine invertebrate species and 70 percent of terrestrial vertebrate genera disappeared.
Ancestors of living vertebrates, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders, appeared on land along with the two important modern mammal groups, the placentals and the marsupials. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, a huge volume of basalt, was created at the end of the Triassic during the initial rifting of Pangea.
Flowering plants emerged during the late Cretaceous Period. Marine transgression was so extensive that in North America, for example, a seaway spread all the way from the Arctic to the Gulf of Mexico in the Cretaceous Period. This separated Pangea into the continents of Laurasia and Gondwana.
The climate was warmer, the seasons were very mild, the sea level was higher, and there was no polar ice. The Early Cretaceous Epoch saw the oceans rise significantly — which lead to the expansion of seaways.
Mammals still continued to grow larger and larger. Again, even more fundamental changes were going on in the sea: During Middle Triassic time, a marine incursion—the Muschelkalk Sea—covered the continental interior of Europe. During the Mesozoic, dinosaurs dominated the Earth.
So, for example, we find the first examples of modern lizards and snakesand mammals which were probably primates. The Mediterranean Sea dried up for several million years because the ice ages reduced sea levels, disconnecting the Atlantic from the Mediterranean, and evaporation rates exceeded inflow from rivers.
The Late Cretaceous extinctions have been variously attributed to such phenomena as global tectonics, draining of the continental seas, northward migration of the continents into different and much cooler climatic zones, intensified volcanic activity, and a catastrophic meteorite or asteroid impact.
Yet the region still had a belt of tropical rainforest in regions around the equator, said Brendan Murphy, an earth scientist at St. Exquisitely detailed fossils have come from these Jurassic deposits in southern Germany.
There were more deserts and less marshland. Archaic mammals filled the world such as creodonts extinct carnivores, unrelated to existing Carnivora. Volcanism may also be to blame for the end-Triassic extinction. Early animals were the Entelodon a so-called "hell pig"Paraceratherium a hornless rhinoceros relative and Basilosaurus an early whale.
It was also a period of time when all of the organisms of the planet had begun to fully recover from the last extinction event. The eruptions may have increased sea surface temperatures and led to ocean acidification that choked out sea life. This extinction, while not as broad and devastating as that at the end of the Permian, had the effect of eliminating a way of life that has not been replicated.
Included in the paleogeographic reconstruction are cold and warm ocean currents.
These glowed a ghost-like green against the garish, toxic shades of fungal blooms which gnawed like ghouls opon the last decaying flesh of Permian life. Mesozoic fossil localities Blue Nile Gorge, Ethiopia: The huge land mass protected the Tethys Ocean which lay across tropical latitudes.
By this time, things were getting a bit too warm in the seas, and there was some climatic deterioration.
The Late Jurassic Epoch saw the evolution of the first avians and an increase in sea levels. Mammals are the dominant terrestrial vertebrates of the Cenozoic. Dinosaurs began in the Triassic, spread during the Jurassic, and dominated Earth in the Cretaceous.
The Early Paleocene saw the recovery of the earth.The Cenozoic Era (/ ˌ s iː n ə ˈ z oʊ ɪ k, ˌ s ɛ-/) meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The Mesozoic Era (/ ˌ m ɛ s ə ˈ z oʊ ɪ k, ˌ m iː- -s oʊ-/ or / ˌ m ɛ z ə ˈ z oʊ ɪ k, ˌ m iː- -s oʊ-/) is an interval of geological time from ultimedescente.com is also called the Age of Reptiles a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus and ultimedescente.com.
The Mesozoic Era The dark band in this photo (indicated by the arrow) of the Hell Creek Formation in Montana is known as the z-coal, a coal layer that marks the approximate boundary between Cretaceous (below) and Tertiary (above) age rocks. The Mesozoic Era was the time from million to 65 million years ago.
During the Mesozoic, the Earth was very different than it is now. The climate was warmer, the seasons were very mild, the sea level was higher, and there was no polar ice.
Mesozoic Era, second of Earth’s three major geologic eras of Phanerozoic time. Its name is derived from the Greek term for “middle life.” The Mesozoic Era began million years ago, following the conclusion of the Paleozoic Era, and ended 66 million years ago, at the dawn of the Cenozoic.
The Mesozoic Era begins where the upheavals of the Permian Extinctions end. A mass extinction at the end of the Permian Period had eliminated most of the species of life that had existed throughout the Paleozoic Era.
Sometimes called the Age of Dinosaurs because this era becomes dominated by dinosaurs and reptiles.Download