Rather, meanings and identities are fluid and changeable according to the situation and the persons involved. This expertise may be required during the exploratory phase of qualitative research, highlighting potential new areas of interest or opening doors to other participants.
Despite the growing numbers of textbooks on qualitative research, most offer only a brief discussion of sampling issues, and far less is presented in a critical fashion Gubrium and Sankar ; Werner and Schoepfle ; Spradley; Strauss and Corbin ; Trotter ; but cf.
Qualitative Methods in Aging Research. The population refers to the set of individual units which the research question seeks to find out about.
A note on sample size - Once a sampling method has been determined, the researcher must consider the sample size. Who Cares for the Elderly. Shifts in public culture now endorse the inclusion of the experiences and beliefs of diverse and minority segments of the population.
If it is important that the sample includes representative groups of study units with specific characteristics for example, residents from urban and rural areas, or different age groupsthen the sampling frame must be divided into groups, or strata, according to these characteristics.
For example, critical case sampling may be used to investigate whether a phenomenon is worth investigating further, before adopting an expert sampling approach to examine specific issues further. Sources of Meaning in Late Life. Sampling There are a wide range of possible options to consider when sampling.
The remaining 20 studies provided no description of the sampling strategy used to identify participants for qualitative data collection and analysis; however, a rationale could be inferred based on a description of who were recruited and selected for participation. Core scientific research principles are also basic cultural ideals Luborsky Shweder R, LeVine R, editors.
The number of the first student to be included in the sample is chosen randomly, for example, by blindly picking one out of 12 pieces of paper, numbered 1 to Click on the following link for a desciption of types of purposeful sampling: For example, in a study aimed at understanding why mothers do not use oral rehydration therapy ORT to prevent childhood death in diarrhoea cases, both women who use ORT and those who do not can be sampled and compared.
Understanding the logic behind sampling for meaning in gerontological research requires an appreciation of how it differs from other approaches.
Qualitatively, we might wish to follow this person as she moves through medical channels, following referrals, tests, and the like. In order to collect these types of data for a study, a target population, community, or study area must be identified first.
Journal of Life History and Narrative.
Stigma theory posits that individuals are socially marked or stigmatized by negative cultural evaluations because of visible differences or deformities, as defined by the community.
Explain probability and non-probability sampling and describes the different types of each. Such notions may have less direct impact on research in fields with long-established and formalized criteria and procedures for determining sample size and composition.
Randomization occurs when all members of the sampling frame have an equal opportunity of being selected for the study. The group of units or individuals who have a legitimate chance of being selected are sometimes referred to as the sampling frame.
Ethnic identity serves as a source of fixed, basic family values during child socialization; more fluidly, as an ascribed family identity to redefine or Sampling in quantitative research reject as part of psychological processes of individuation in early adulthood; sometimes a source of social stigma in communities or in times of war with foreign countries e.
Abstract In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. This is often the case in community-based studies, in which the people to be interviewed are from different villages, and the villages have to be chosen from different areas.
Thus the important contributions of qualitative work derived from concerns with validity and process may be seen as addressing core concerns of sampling, albeit in terms of issues less typically discussed by quantitative studies.
By conditions, we mean the units i. Therefore, the researcher would select individuals from which to collect the data. If number 6 is picked, then every twelfth student will be included in the sample, starting with student number 6, until students are selected.
One consequence is that research proposals and reports may appear incomplete or inadequate when in fact they are appropriately defined for qualitative purposes.
What is a Case? In other cases, it is less obvious, as in studies of disease, for example, that require insights from sufferers but also from people not suffering to gain an understanding for comparison with the experiences and personal meanings of similar people without the condition.
These extreme or deviant cases are useful because they often provide significant insight into a particular phenomenon, which can act as lessons or cases of best practice that guide future research and practice.
What is perhaps the most important contrast between the sampling-for-meaning approach and more standard survey sampling is found in the model of the person that underlies elicitation strategies.
For more information, click here: There are a variety of ways I could consider to obtain a representative sample. In the example, this would imply that the researcher selects one relatively rich and one poor community.Mar 01, · In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research.
Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest.
Critical case sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique that is particularly useful in exploratory qualitative research, research with limited resources, as well as research where a single case (or small number of cases) can be decisive in explaining the phenomenon of interest.
In quantitative research, the goal would be to conduct a random sampling that ensured the sample group would be representative of the entire population, and therefore, the results could be generalized to the entire population.
In the practical exercise (Quantitative Exam Task 1 - 5%) you developed three quantitative research designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental) for your research question, and considered the strengths and weaknesses, as well as practical issues, for each of these designs.